Introduction to Para matha Bhngam

Dear Swamy  Desika BhakthAs :

AdiyEn will commence a number of  postings now on the next Desika Prabhandham , Para Matha Bhangam
in the overall series of postings linked to Thiruvaheendhrapuram RathnAngi Kaimkaryam .

Introductory  Comments on this Tamil Prabhandham
This is a very important Prabhandham derived from a very famous debate of Swamy  Desikan with leaders of
other Mathams in front of Lord DevanAthan on the banks of  PeNNai river . Swamy Desikan defeated all his challengers and firmly established the Supermacy of VisishtAdhvaitham over 15 other SiddhAnthams . Lord DevanAthan was very pleased at the accomplishment of His dear devotee and blessed him profusely .

The avathAram of Para Matha Bhngam
After this historic debate , Swamy  Desikan composed the major MaNipravALa SrI Sookthi named "PARA MATHA BHANGAM " to summarize the content of his debate with the people of Para Mathams ( other SiddhAnthams) .

There are 24 chapters in that SrI Sookthi/Rahasyam .Swamy Desikan took the first and the last paasurams of these 24 chapters that were in chaste TamiL and strung  them together as a garland along with 6 more special Paasurams to create the FOURTH Desika Prabhandham with the same name of "PARA MATHA BHANGAM " . There are thus 54 Tamil Paasurams in this Fourth Desika Prabhandham .

The Original SrI Sookthi in MaNipravALam
The original  MaNipravALa Version of "Para Matha Bhangam " is an intellectual achievement of the highest magnitude. Abhinava Desikan , Vaikunta Vaasi , SrI UttamUr  Swamy has blessed us with a commentary for this MaNipravALa version entitled "AnapAya PrabhA ". It has 1168 pages of commentary .Erudition to grasp the fine points of this grantham is beyond the capabilities of many of us . Only a very few AchAryAs can help us understand atleast a small portion of this extraordinary creation of Swamy Desikan.

The SrI Sookthis of Swamy  Desikan such as Tatthva Muktha KalApam ,Satha DhUshaNi , SarvArTa Siddhi , MeemAmsa PadhukA ,The Five RakshA granthams have material  related to  Para Matha Bhangam. It will take many lives and SadAchArya KatAksham to get even  a glimpse of the deep doctrines covered by Swamy
Desikan in the original SrI Sookthi of Para Matha Bhangam .

For our benefit , Swamy  Desikan has assembled the 54 Tamil Paasurams of the original SrI Sookthi to realize the Fourth Desika Prabhandham named Para Matha Bhangam . That Tamil Prabhandham will be the subject of the subsequent postings for the next few days. Please bear with adiyEn's  incompetence to summarize them .

Swamy  Desikan's Prayer to Lord DevanAthan
The original MaNipravALa Version starts with the prayer of Swamy Desikan to Lord DEvanAthan , who was waiting eagerly on the banks of PeNNai River during one of His Uthsavam to witness this debate between His intimate devotee and the challengers from the other Mathams. The prayer of Swamy  Desikan to Lord DevanAthan at the beginning of this debate is  :

" apaayAsthu tama: pumsAm anapAya prabhAnvitha:
  AhIndhranagarE nithyam udhithOayam ahaskara: "

Word by Word Meaning
anapAya PrabhA anvitha :  = the Lord with never leaving lustre (prabhA) of SrI HemAbhja Naayaki

AhIndhra NagarE = at His dhivya dEsam of AhIndhrapuram

nithyam = always

udhitha: = rising

ayam = this Lord , the origin of this SrI Sookthi

Ahaskara: =  is shining as the radiant Sun

PumsAm Tama: nithyam apAsyathu = May He banish the darkness (tamas) of nescience and viparItha Jn~Anam of the chEthanams !

( Integrated Meaning ):  Lord DEvanAthan with the unique lakshaNam of His eternal Prabhai of SrI HemAbhja
Naayaki  . Her is always resplendent as the rising Sun. May this Lord of Thiruvaheendhrapuram chase away all
the spirtual darkness of people with His matchless lustre!

This prayer is linkable to the command of Manu in His Smruthi according to Sri UtthamUr Swamy :

" yaa vEda-bAhyaa: smruthayO yaasccha kaasccha kudhrushtaya:
  SarvasthA: nishphalA: prEthya tamOnishtA hi taa: smruthA:"

Para Mathams are born due to the influence of TamO guNam and are rooted in that guNam . The prayer to the ishta dhaivam of Swamy  Desikan is to remove the Tamo GuNam of people through study of the SrI Sookthi born out of Lord DEvanAthan's grace .Paraphrasing Manu , the First Law giver , Swamy  Desikan condemns the Veda BAhya and Kudhrushti Mathams as nishphalam ( fruitless) and prays to the Lord to banish the TamO GuNam   that stands in the way of the ChEthanams to adopt the Vedam-prescribed UpAyam of SaraNAgathy to gain freedom from the cycles of Births and Deaths in the SamsAric world (Moksham ).

The Scope of Para Matha Bhangam
Swamy  Desikan was a Master of all Darsanams . He was one of the greatest scholars of all times to understand the faulty assumptions and conclusions of Veda Baahya Mathams and Kudrushti Mathams . He was also a Master of the tenets of SrI VisishtAdhvaitham as developed by Rishis like VyAsa-ParAsara-Parankusa and poorvAchAryAs like Swamy  Nathamuni, EmperumAnAr and other AchAryas like NadathUr AmmAL and AathrEya RaamAnujar  (His own AchAryan).

Swamy  Desikan used his immense scholarship to provide the logic-based critique about the deficiencies and pitfalls of  15 other Mathams(SaarvAkam , Four kinds of Bhouddha Matham ,Jainam , Adhvaitham , BhAskara-Yaadhava Matham , VyAkaraNa Matham , KaNAtha Matham , Gouthama Matham , MeemAmsaka
Matham , Saankhya Matham , Yoga and Paasupatha Mathams )and established the unassailable superiority of VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham .

Swamy  Desikan created the major MaNipravALa commentary as his critique of all the other SiddhAnthams and to establish the glories of  VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham over all of them . There are 24 chapters in the MaNipravALa Rahasyam known as "Para Matha Bhangam ".

These 24 chapters of Paramatha Bhangam are:

1.PrasthAvanAdhikAram ( The chapter serving as an Introduction / Preface to this Sri Sookthi )

2. Jeeva TatthvAdhikAram (Sentient Tatthvam)
3. Achith TattvAdhikAram (insentient Tatthvam)
4. Para TatthvAdhikAram (Iswara Tatthvam)

Chapters 2, 3 and 4 deal with the Tatthva Thrayams of ChEthanam , achEthanam and Iswaran .

5. SamudhAya DhOshAdhikAram

This chapter deals with the defects /blemishes (dhOshams) common to all (samudhAya dhOshams) of the Para Mathams

6. LokAyadhika BhangAdhikAram /SaarvAka Matham critique
7. MadhyAmika BhangAdhikAram/ criticism of MaadhyAdhmikam
8. YogAchAra BhangAdhikAram/Criticism of YogAchAram
9. SouuthrAndhika BhangAdhikAram
10. VaibhAshika BhangAhikAram
11. Prachanna BHouddha BhangAdhikAram
12. Jaina BhangAdhikAram
13. BhAskara-Yaadhava BnagAdhikAram
14. VyAkaraNa BhangAdhikAram
15. VaisEshika BhangAdhikAram
16. Goudhama(NyAya) BhangAdhikAram
17. NirIswara MemAmsA BhangAdhikAram
18. NeerIswara Saankhya NirAkaraNAdhikAram
19. Yoga SiddhAntha BhangAdhikAram/Criticism of Yoga Matham
20. Paasupatha BhashikArAdhikAram

The above 15 chapters (  6-20 ) serve as the criticism of the specific dhOshams of  each of the above 15 Para Mathams .

21. Salutation to PaancharAthra Saasthram/ Bhagavath Saasthra VirOdha BhangAdhikAram.

This chapter is constructed as the defense of Paancha Raathra Aagamam and to establish that it does not belong to the category of Para Mathams .

22. ParOkthOpAya BhangAdhikAram
23. ParOktha PrayOjana BhangAdhikAram

These two chapters assert that the UpAyam and Phalan / PrayOjanam advocated by the 15 Para Mathams are
insubstantial, inappropriate and not lasting to gain Moksha Sukham in distinct contrast with the UpAyam
and Phalan realizable with the Parama Vidhika Matham of VisishtAdhvaitham.

24. Nigamana AdhikAram

Based on Tarkam , Nigamanam means conclusion in a Syllogism. Nigamana AdhikAram can also be
intrepreted as that which has Vedic Sanctions. This is the concluding chapter of the illustrious SrI Sookthi
of  Para Matha Bhngam .

 Paasuram 154-156

Today , we will study the first three Paasurams of Para Matha Bhangam . The first Paasuram consists  of
Swamy  Desikan's salutaions to Lord Sudarsanar, the embodiment of the Sankalpa Sakthi of SriMan NaarAyaNan.
The second and the Third Paasurams are tributes to AchAryans for their great UpakAram to us.

154) Salutations to Sudarsana BhagavAn
vaNN taLa ambhuyatthuL ilankum aRu kOnam misai
   vaNN paNilam Thikiri vaLai vill vaLai-vaay Musalam
tiNN kaiyil ankusam seer thihazhum Gadhai senkamalam
   yeNN padai yEnthi ninRAn yezhil Aazhi IRayavanE

(Meaning ): Lord Sudarsanar is standing on top of a eight petaled Lotus flower housing the six cornered
yanthram . He is radiant with the eight weapons in His eight hands : Conch , Chakram , Bow , Axe , Pestle ,
Elephant Goad , Mace , Lotus shaped weapon.

Additional Comments:
The soundharyam of Lord Sudarsanar is saluted as "Yezhil Aazhi IRayavan" . His status as  the Master of the battle field is recognized by the choice of the name "IRayavan " ( Lord ) . The weapons are held firm in His hands (tiNN kayil ) for immediate use (prayOgam) . " VeNN paNilam " refers to the white hued conch. " VaLai moonRu vill " denotes the Saarngam bow bent at three  places . Lord Sudarsanar is ready to fly in to action as indicated by
His PrathyAleeDam posture with one step  mounted forward . Swamy  Desikan seeks the protective power of Lord Sudarsana in the context of the imminent debate with the Para MathasthAL.

155) The great help of AchAryAs ; A verse with 16 lines
This Paasuram is set in PathinARu SeerAsiriya Chandha Viruttham . It is a majestically moving Paasuram with
beautiful Chandham and has to be recited without break to enjoy the TaaLa PramAnam. :

vidu neRi anji vidat-thodakkiya
   vithiyar adainthu thozhat-tazhaitthu yezhu
vizhi aruL tanthu vilakku adi kaLai
   virahil iyambi vilakki vaitthanar

kodu vinai yenpathanai tinatthinai
   koNarthal ihantha guNat-tanatthinar
Kuruhayil vanthu kozhuppu adakkiya
   Kulapathy tantha kuRippil Vaitthanar

Kadu narahu anbhu kazhaRRi maRRoru
     kathi peRum anpil yemmaip-porutthinar
Kamalai uhantha kadal kidaikkadal
     karuNai uyarntha tidarkku orukkinar

padu mudhal inRi vaLarttha naRRkkalai
    pala pala onRa yemakku uraitthanar
pazha maRaiyanthi nadaikku idaic-chuvar
   Para Matham yenRu idittha pattharE

(meaning): The Para Mathams (Veda Baahya and Kudhrushti Mathams ) were obstacles to the spreading of  our timeless Matham rooted in Veda/VedAnthams. Our parama BhAgavatha AchAryAs refuted the incorrect doctrines of Para Mathams through their SrI Sookthis and one-on-one debates with the challengers from Para Matham. We went and prostrated before these AchAryAs driven by our fear of following the sinful ways (deceptively alluring Para Mathams) .Those merciful AchAryAs blessed us with affection and cast their auspicious glances on us.
They instructed us about (1) the misfortunes that would result from the sins that block our pursuit of the right UpAyams (2) the need for observance of the right upAyam to gain Moksham . Those AchAryAs have the caring disposition to make sure that no sins come our way. They made us follow the way shown by Swamy
NammAzhwAr , who with His sweet paasurams refuted the unsound doctrines of Para Mathams.They asked us
to be aware of the deeds that will land us in Narakam and made us long for Moksham .They made us fit objects
for approaching the Lord resting in the Milky Ocean .They initiated us in to many eternal vidhyAs . Many indeed are the matchless upakArams extended to us by  our most merciful AchAryans .

Special Notes based on SrI UtthamUr Swamy's commentary:
Question may  arise as to the appropraiteness of the Viraktha SikhAmaNis like our AchAryas to engage in acts of refutation and deflation of the Para mathams. In reality , it is the way shown by our PoorvAchAryAs. There is nothing wrong with such refutations. This refutation is not to condemn the Para Matha AchAryAs ; it is for the auspiciousness of the world and to spare one's own sishyAs from being confused and agitated . It is like removing
the weeds from a planted field for the health of the crop under cultivation.In creating this KhaNDana Grantham , Swamy Desikan points out that it is not only dhUshaNam (finding fault with the premises of other Veda Baahya and Kudhrushti mathams ) but it is also Sva-paksha sTApanam ( securing the  foundations of one 's own Matham : VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham). Para Matha nirasanam or condemnation of the faulty doctrines of other Mathams is defended as an important duty of an AchAryan. This is the legitimate duty of a SadAchAryan : Sva Paksha sTApanam and Para Paksha Prathikshiptham . Both have to go together : Establishment of the soundness of one's doctrines as well as the logical rejection of the faulty doctrines of Para Mathams .

Additional Notes on this Paasuram
Para Mathams were like the blocking walls between the straight way of ancient VedAntham ( Para Matham pazha
maRayanthi nadaikku idaic-chuvar). Those walls had to come down.AchAryAs broke them down so that there are no more obstructions to travel on the right royal road of VedAntham . AchAryAs are saluted here as
" Idaic-chuvar idittha Patthar ".

The fortunate sishyAs were afraid to travel on the misleading routes of Para Matham and abandoned such travel ( vidu neRi anji vidat- thodakkiya vithiyar ) and prostrated before the sacred feet of their AchAryAs ( adainthu Thozha) . What did the AchAryAs do ? They cast their merciful glances on these sishyas ( aruL vizhi tanthu) and instructed them on the futile pursuit of Para Mathams for gaining Moksham and removed  their doubts like a farmer will remove the weeds from the field to protect the main crop ( vilaku adi kaLai iyampi ) . They not only  saved us from observance of sinful deeds but also initiated us in the performance of the UpAyam ( Bhakthi or Prapatthi yOgam ) befitting our sakthi.

The AchAryAs helped us with additional things as well :

(1) They positioned us to comprehend and practise the deep doctrines of our Kulapathi , Swamy  NammAzhwAr ( Kulapathy tantha kuRippil vaitthanar).

(2) They removed our penchant for committing sins through their SadhupadEsams (kodu vinai tavirtthanar).

(3) They kindled our longing for Moksha Sukham  ( maRRoru gathi peRum anbil yeMMai porutthinar).

(4) They raised us to the elevated plateau , where the most merciful Lord is resting ( KaruNai tidarkku orukkinar).

(5) They revealed to us many vidhyAs bequeathed to them by PoorvAchAryAs and Sages ( pala pala nall kalai uraitthanar ).

Such is the grand Compassion and UpakAram of our AchAryAs !

156) The act of AchAryAs instructing us only on the essence of Doctrines
pOm uraikkum poruL yaamm aRiyOm poruL aar maRayil
    uraikkinRa thAmE aRiyum taram udayArAm
uraikkinra ivai aayntu yedutthu AaraNa nool vazhiyE
   nAmm uraikkum vahai nall aruL yEnthi navinRanaRE

(meaning ):  The Veda manthrams with their true meanings of doctrines are like the  deep ocean . We can not know without the help of AchAryAs as to which Veda Manthrams are to be used and which are to be discarded . Our AchAryAs have the power to see directly , what they speak about as upadEsams. Out of their boundless mercy towards us , they have searched deeply among the Veda manthrams and picked those , which are indispensable  for us and instructed us on them .As a result , we (Swamy Desikan )  embraced the path of VedAntham and are able to create this SrI Sookthi of  Para Matha Bhangam .

Before the AchArya UpadEsam , we were ignorant ones , who had no idea about which portions of the vast Vedam is appropriate for us and which one are not (PoruL aar maRayil  pOm uraikkum poruL yaamm aRiyOm ) .

The quality of our AchAryAs is such that they have the power to directly visualize what they teach us ( tAmm uraikkinrana tAmE aRiyum taram udayAr ).

These glorious AchAryAs have DayA towards us and have analyzed the entire gamut of Veda Manthrams , picked among them whatever is appropriate for us ( nall aruL yEnthi , aaynthu ivai uraikkum aamm yenRu). Then they instructed us on those selected manthrams in the way in which Vedam shows ( aaraNa nool vazhiyE nAmm
uraikkum vahai navinRanar).

Additional Comments
We do not know the Bhaava Patha arTams of the Veda Manthrams. We can not use yukthi vaadham or kutarkkam to establish which of the meanings of Veda Manthrams is lasting and which are not . AchAryAs endowed with satthva GuNam are able to distinguish Nithya ( lasting) and anithya (non-lasting ) meanings and have the vivEkam
to instruct us about the true and lasting meanings of SaarIradhi Saasthrams.

 Paasuram 157-160

  Today , we will study the  Four Paasurams of   Para Matha Bhangam of PrasthAvanAdhikAram
  dealing with Jeeva and achEthana TatthvAdhikArams .   There are two paasurams for each of the two subjecs:
  ChEthanam and achEthanam .

  157) Chastisement of the Para Mathams that confuse even the VivEkis
  chitthum achitthum IRayumenat-teLivuRRu ninRa
     tatthvam moonRum tanittani kaattum tani maRayAl
  mutthi vazhikku ithu moolam yenat-tuNivArkaLayum
     katthi mayakkum kathakarai nAmm kadihinRanamE

  (Meaning): VedAntha Saasthrams define distinctly the individual   Svaroopams and SvabhAvams of the three tatthvams : ChEthanam ,   achEthnam and Iswaran . VivEkis ( those with discriminating intellect )   clearly understand these distinctions. They also know that this   understanding about the Tatthva Thrayams is the basis of  gaining   MOksham. We , who have been blessed with AchArya UpadEsam ,   condemn those prathivAdhis , who enchant even these vivEkis   with their ensnaring and loud arguments .

  158) Removal of doubts about the three kinds of Jeevans
  mutthin vadangaL yena Mukundhan punai moovahayAm
     chitthil arum suruthi .c-chevvai mARiya sinthaihaLAl
  patthil iraNDu meykkap-pahattum para vAdhiyar tamm
      katthil vizhunthu adainthaa-avazhukkuinRu kazhaRRinamE

  (Meaning): EmperumAn adorns the three kinds of Jevans   ( Bhaddhar , Mukthar and Nithyar) as a pearl necklace on   His chest . About these three kinds of Jeevans , Para Matha   Vaadhis attack with their doctrines that areinconsistent with   the VedAs . They argue loudly to see if they can make atleast   two of their ten faulty points stick and blabber to confuse the VivEkis.   We (Swamy  Dsikan ) have cleared these erroneous statements
  of  Para Matha Vaadhis in this chapter on Jeva Tatthva adhikAram.

  Yeka Jeeva Vadham , Aanandha Taara Tamyam in Moksham ,   the confusion that Isvaran is the AathmA and the other confusion   about the AathmA being understood as the body are some of   the befuddlements that can confuse even a VivEki. Jeevan has   the eight guNams , prakruthi vilakshaNathvam and Iswara   Seshathvam as the ten guNams. Yet , the Para Matha Vadhis   conclude incorrectly that dEham is AathmA and Iswaran is
  the Jeevan . Swamy Desikan states that in the JeevAthma   TatthvAdhikAram , he engaged the Para Matha Vaadhis in debate   and showed that their intrepretations about the JeevAthmA   and its realtionaships to achEthanam andn Iswaran are utterly false .

  159) The removal of the confusion about achEthana Tatthvam
  nAkku iyalum vahai nammai aLitthavar nall aruLAl
     bhAkkiyam yEnthip-paran adiyAr tiRam pArtthaRppin
  thAkkiyar tangaL talai misai tAkkit-tanimaRai tAnn
     bhOkkiyam yenRatanil poy mathangaLai pOkkuvamE

  (Meaning): We , who had no knowledge about tatthvams   ( their svaroopams and SvabhAvans) have been blessed to   speak about them with confidence due to our AchArya   UpadEsam and anugraham. We presented the correct
  description about the Jeevans in the previous chapter.   In this adhikAram , we criticize those , who use aabhAsa
  yukthis ( disgusting arguments) to advance their incorrect   doctrines about the achEthanam (BhOgyam ) enjoyed  by   the Jeevan ( bhOkthA).

  Upanishads describe the three Tathtvams as " BhOkthA   (Jeevan, the one that enjoys) , BhOgyam ( the vasthu that   is being enjoyed by the BhOkthA ) and PrEritha ( Iswaran,   the Commander ).

  Boudha-VaisEshAdhikaL' s celebration of ParamANu Vaadham ,   adhvaithin's view that the world is a myth , misintrepretation of   Kaalam and Nithya VibhUthi are some of the points that Swamy   Desikan attacks under the achEthana adhikAram.

  160) Explanation of AchEthanam according to AchAryAs
  thee vajai mARRi anRu ohr tEril aaraNam paadiya
     Devaki seer mahanAr tiRampA aruL soodiya nAmm
  moovahaiyAm aRiyAt-tatthuvathtin muham aRivAr
     naa vahayE nadatthum nadai paartthu nadanthanamE

  (Meaning ): DEvaki's son , KrishNa ParamAthmA decided   to uplift the Jeevans from SamsAric mire. He stood as   the charioteer for Arjunan during the great war .Our Lord   used Arjunan as an excuse to instruct the beings of the world   on the meanings of VedAnthams through His SrI Sookthi of   Geethai. We who have been blessed by th Lord explained   the intrinsic nature(Svaroopams) and SvabhAvams  of   achEthana entities such as Prakruthi, Kaalam , Suddha   Satthvam as our AchAryAs explained to us from the SrI Sookthis   of Sages VyAsa , ParAsarar and the AzhwArs.

Paasuram 161-162

Today , we will study the  two Paasurams of Para Matha Bhangam dealing with Isvara (Para ) TatthvAdhikArams .This is the Fourth adhikAram of Para Matha Bhangam.The second and the third adhikArams were about he Jeevan and achEthana Tathtvams .

For  additional information on the three Tatthvams and ParadEvathA nirUpaNam , the bhakthAs are referred to
SWamy  D esikan's  SrImth Rahasya Thrayam Chapters of (1) Tatthva Thraya ChinthanAdhikAram and (2) ParadEvathA PaaramArTyAdhikaram.

161)  Isvara Tatthvam : Explanation according to AchAryAs
velaip-puRam aham kANpathu pOl vEda nannERi sEr
    noolaip-puRam aham kANDalil nuNN aRivnRi ninReer
Maalaip-peRa vazhi kAttiya Desikar VaachakamE
    Olaip-puRatthil yezhuthuhinROm uLL yezhuthumin

(Meaning ) : Oh AaasthikAs ! It is impossible to see the inside and outside of the great ocean. Similarly , it
is a difficult  task to comprehend the simple and the deeper inner meanings of  the SaasthrAs that describe Veda mArgam . You do not have the sharp intellect to accomplish that task.Therefore , we are writing the essence of the AchArya UpadEsams on the UpAyam for Moksham . May You inscribe this message in your mind and benefit from it !

162) Isvaran: Explanation to remove confusions
siRai nilayAm bhavatthil siRu tEn inbham uNDu uzhlvAr
   maRai nilai kaNDu aRiyA mayal mARRiya mann aruLAl
thuRai nilai pAram yenat-tuLangA amuthak-kadalAm
  iRai nilai yAmm uraitthOm yemm gurukkaL iyambinavE

This SamsAric life is like the life in prison. The happiness (Sukham ) that one experiences in this SamsAric life is
like an insignificant drop of honey that is tasted  in between all the sufferings . The chEthanams deeply comitted to SamsAram think of this trivial sukham as great  and   are enveloped in ajn~Anam that prevents them from engaging in the learning of the meanings of VedAntham (VaakyArTams and TaathparyArTams. Sath SampradhAyam isessential for the understanding of these VedArTams .Our AchAryAs are powerful to destroy our ajn~Anam with their DayA for us through their merciful upadEsams on our Sath SampradhAyam .Our AchAryAs reveal Isvaran as (1) the descending steps (ThuRai) for  the ocean of  Bliss (2) as our  enduring home (3) as the other bank of the ocean of SamsAram and (4) as the tranquil ocean of nectar . Following our AchAryan's upadEsams , we (Swamy  Desikan ) reveal the Svaroopam and SvabhAvam of Iswaran .

Special Notes about the Fourth AdhikAram ( Para Tatthva adhikAram)
We will follow the commentary of UtthamUr  Swamy now . The second and the third adhikArams were about Jeevan (BhOkthA) and AchEthana (BhOgyam ) Tathvams. The fourth adhikAram is about Iswaran (PrErithA ) and His Svaroopam as well as SvabhAvam according to VisishtAdhvaitha SiddhAntham.

PrErithA means one who commands (niyamikkiRavan/yEvuhiravan). He is the One who orders the chEthanams as their indweller. He  is Omniscient (Sarvajn~an) .He can only be seen through SaasthrAs ( Saasthraika vEdhyan). He (Vaikunta NaaTan) can not be seen with one 's own physical eyes on this earth. Our inability to see Him and enjoy His physical form , guNams and Iswaryams here is known as anulabdhi. It can be overcome by the knowledge about His SaasthrAs that  reveal  His presence here. He can be seen & enjoyed only in His archA roopam on this earth by us until we reach SrI Vaikuntam by practising one of the two MokshOpAyams.

The Creation , protection and destruction of the universe and its beings is carried out by this Iswaran . He is UpAdhAna and Nimittha KaaraNan.Thus , He is Sarva Sakthan with SarIrAthma Sambhandham and as One Brahman carries out the Srushti, STithi and PraLayam .He becomes the UpAsyan ( the One to be meditated upon ) for Mumukshus ( those who desire MOksham).

Iswaran is avAptha Samastha Kaaman ( one who has gained all fruits/phalans and needs nothing ).Therefore He has no PrayOjanApEkshai ( want for any gain ).

In this Para Tatthva adhikAram (Para Tatthva NirNaya adhikAram ), Swamy  Desikan proves the invalidity of the assumptions of Para Mathams about Iswara Tathvam and instructs us on the Veda Maarga prathishtApitha Iswara Tatthvam in all its correctnness and glories. Swamy  Desikan reminds us of the Atarava Sikhpanishad Vaakyam:
"KaaraNam tu dhyEya: " ( One who is the Jagath KaaraNan should be the object of one's dhyAnam ) and proves that He is SrIman NaarAyaNan , the Supreme Tatthvam, Para Brahmam and Param JyOthi .  He is full of all auspicious attributes and is free from any blemishes .

This Iswaran is the One who is SaasthrIya Sarva Karma SamArAdhyan ( all karmAs sanctioned by the Vedams is NaarAyaNa AarAdhanam; whatever is a dreesed to  other DevathAs , who are all influenced by their karmAs ( karma VasyALs) reach Him ). This Iswaran is Sarva Karma Phala pradhan (as RaajAdhi Raajan , He grants the fruits for all KarmAs ).He is the One , who can say with clarity , conviction and authority  : " MokshayishyAmi Maa sucha: " ( Do not grieve; I will chase away all your sins and grant you freedom from the cycles of births and deaths).Thus He is Moksha Phala Pradhan .

Summing up, Swamy  Desikan states here that for those , who were incessantly tasting the bitterness (kasappu ) of
the Taapa Thrayams of SamsAram  , he has shown the sukhAnubhavam of the taste of a little drop of the honey of Iswaran in this Para Tatthva adhikAram and attempted to remove their ajn~Anam & ViparItha

The three adhikArams covered so far are elaborations of "Sva -paksha sTApana pEtikai " ( Statement and defense of one's SiddhAntham ); the next 17 adhikArams are about the logical criticisms and condemnations  of the other Pakshams ( Para Paksha prathikshEpa pEtikai) , where Swamy  Desikan reaches dizzying  heights of scholarship and AchAryakathvam .

 Paasuram 163-164

Today , we will study the  two Paasurams of SamudhAya dhOshAdhikAram of Para Matha Bhangam dealing with the integrated analysis of the defects found in the approaches by the Para Mathams  regarding Tatthva Thrayams as well as Hitham and Parama PurushArTam.

VeRi aar tuLavudai Vitthahan tanmayin meyyaRivAr
     kuRiyAr nediyavar yenRu oru kuRRam piRarkku urayAr
aRiyAr tiratthil aruL purinthu AaraNa nanneRiyAl
    siRiyAr vazhigaL azhippathum theengu kazhippathaRkkE

(Meaning) : Our AchAryAs who fully understand the Svaroopa- SvabhAva visEshams of the Lord of mysterious deeds adorning the fragrant TuLasi garland will not venture to cast even the smallest of  accusations (blames ) on other AchAryAs s. It is not their nature to engage in such activities.  Inspite of this leaning , the reason for these merciful AchAryAs with deep faith in Veda mArgam , to criticize the incorrect docrines  of other mathams is to protect the simple people , who may be enchanted and ensnared by these alluring (bewitching) appeal of  doctrines of Para Mathams even if they have faulty premises. Our AchAryAs point out the inaccuracies and blemishes in Para Mathams purely out of their dayA to save us , the saadhAraNa adhikAris(the untutored).

Special Notes:
The key passage of this Paasuram is : " AaraNa nool neRiyAl siRiyAr vazhikaL azhippathum , aRiyAr tiRatthil aruL purinthu theengu kazhippathaRkkE " ( Following the path laid out by the never-failing VedAs , our merciful AchAryAs destroy the incorrect  siddhAnthams that either misintrepret VedAs or stand outside the Vedic doctrines. This they do to remove the damages done  from following these alpa darsanams by unsuspecting simple folks).

These AchAryAs are fully aware (mey aRivAr) of the Svaroopam and SvabhAvam (tanmai) of the Lord (MaayOn/Vitthahan ) , who sports the fragrant  TuLasi garland ( VeRiyAr TuLavudai Vitthahan) . That is why they undertake on themselves the duties of a SadAchAryan to instruct us on the true doctrines based on the correct intrepretations of the VedAs .

Veda PramANam
Vedams are the best among PramANams to reveal the hollowness of other inaccurate doctrines of Para Mathams . Therefore AchAryAs choose Sabdha (Veda ) PramANam for their efforts .Swamy  Desikan suggests that Matha DhUshaNam is not to be mixed with manushya dhUshaNam , while they (AchAryAs) are engaged in the criticism of
mathams created by those with either alpa jn~Anam about the true meanings of the VedAs or   created by them with total disregard for Vedic doctrines. They have no legitimate pramANams to back them up.

PramAnam and PramEyam
PramANa is derived from the root " PramA " meaning valid and true knowledge.PramANa means the instrument ( reason ) for valid knowledge.

PramEya is the object of cognition/object of knowledge.

VisishtAdhvaitha VedAntham accepts Perception , inference and verbal testimony ( Sabdha) as PramANmas .

ChArvaka Matham accepts perception (prathyaksha) as the only means of valid knowledge.

The Bhuddhists and VaisEshikAs accept two PramANams : Perception (pratyaksha ) and inference ( anumAna ) .

PrabhAkara MeemAmsa accepts Prathyaksha, anumAna and Sabdha along with presumption (arthApatti ) as PramANams .

Bhatta MeemAsa and Adhvaitham accepts the traditional three along with three more as PramANAs: comparison , presumption and noncognition ( anupalabdhi) .

Saiva SiddhAntham accepts Siva-chith-Sakthi as  the primary pramAnam and accepts the traditional three as secondary pramANams. DvaithAs have two kinds of PramANAs: Anu pramANa and Kevala PramANa . Latter is defined as an object as it is. For Dvaitha VedAnthins , the traditional three PramANAs are grouped under the category of anu-pramANa (Source of valid knowledge) .

Veda PrAmANyam ( True Validity of the VedAs ) is common to Advaitha, Dhvaitha and VisishtAdhvaitha
Darsanams . Buddhism, Jainism do not  accept the validity of the VedAs and are therefore called Veda Baahya Mathams.

164) The common dhOshams of Para Mathams
minDu uraikka virahu tarum tarukkam koNDE
    vENDumkAl vENDuvathE viLampuhinrAr
kaNDatharkku viparItham katthuhinrAr
    kANAtha kuRai maRayil kAtta niRpAr
PaNDu orutthan kaNDu uraitthEn nAnE yennap-
   pala vahayilum upAthihaLAl padinthu veezhvAr
KoNDal okkum ThirumEni Maayak-kUtthan
   kurai kazhal sEr vithi vahayil koodAthArE

(Meaning ): The followers of KaNAtha-Gouthama- VyAkaraNa -MeemAmsa darsanams say whatever
they want at the desired times and use illogic that gives rise to futile debates . Those who belong to
the BhAskara-Yaadhava adhvaitham will distort what they see  (Prathyaksham/Perception ) and
shout about them . The ChArvAka- Bhoudda -Jaina Matham followers will declare that Vedam is created by
humans and  deny its apourushEyam origin from the Lord Himself. Those who belong to Saankhya-Yoga and
Paasupatha mathams believe in the statements of Sage Kapila, BrahmA and Siva that they invented these mathams and eat and seek dhravyams to make their lives comfortable. Alas ! What a pity that none of those belonging to these Para Mathams have the good fortune of seeking the divine feet of SrIman NaarAyaNan and enjoy them as Parama bhOgyam and PurushArTam.

Swamy  Desikan ThiruvadigaLE SaraNam
Daasan , Oppiliappan Koil Varadachari Sadagopan

" Santhu: SrEyAmsi bhUyAmsi "

Paasuram 165-166

 Today , we will study the  two Paasurams dealing with the criticism of the ChArvAka Matham .

165) Condemnation of the ChaarvAka /UlOhAyatha Matham
KaNdathu mey yenil kANum maRayil aRivu kaNDOm
    kaNDathu alAthathu ilathu yenil ithil kuRRam kaNDilam
kaNDathu pOl maRai kAttuvathum kaNDathu otthathanAl
    uMDathu kEtkkum ulOhAyathar  yenRu meeruvathE

The Doctrine of ChArvakam :  Prathyaksham alone is PramANam says ChArvaakAs.Only those recognized by direct perception (Prathyaksham) are true according to them. Rest are false . Therefore , every thing described by Vedam that is not seeable by the direct perception such as  Dharmam, adharmam , Iswaran , the Other world are all false according to CharvAkAs.

These CharvAkAs equate arTa kAmams (POruL , Inbham) as equal to PurushArTam ( Veedu). Swamy Desikan rejects the view that Prathyaksham alone is PramANam.He goes on to establish why anumAnam and Sabdham(Vedam)  are additional necessary PramANams. Swamy  Desikan quotes Swamy ParAsara Bhattar's SrI RangarAja Sthava SlOkam 2.5 to refute CharvAkA's claim that Vedam is not PramANam .

Here Bhattar argues that CharvAkAs hear the Vedam through their ears ,which is Prathyaksham since it is a prathyaksha  indhriyam and develop knowledge about the Meanings of the Vedam (arTa Jn~Anam )from there.  Bhattar asks how one can categorize Vedam as Meaningless , when the knowledge about meaning is obtained through one's ears . The chief reason for Prathyaksham is the assistance of an Indhriyam .When the ear as an Indhriyam hears it and develops arTa Jn~Anam , Bhattar asks how can you reject sabdham(Vedam )  as false .

Some CharvAkAs include anumAnam and aagamam in Prathyaksham .Swamy  Desikan rejects that view and points out that Prathyaksham and anumAnam are separate PramANams .Swamy Desikan's  arguments are deep and incisive to reject ChArvaka Matham as unacceptable as elaborated in the next paasuram.

166) The inconsistency between the ChArvakA's doctrines and actions
KaNDathanAl kANathathu anumikkinranar
    KaNDu Orutthan uraitthatanai kavaruhinRAr
uNDu pasi kedum yenRE uNarnthu uNkinrAr
    onRAlE onRait-tAmm sAdhikkinRAr
paNDu mulai uNDu athanaal mulai uNkinrAr
    pArkkinrAr pala allAt-taMMai maRRum
kaNDu mathi ketta nilai kANahillAr
   kANathathu ilathu yenRu kalnguvArE

(Meaning ): ChArvakAs infer the presence of Agni from the directly seen smoke. Another believes in the vishayam
that is directly seen and experienced by the ear  and accepts it . From this , it is clear that the charvAkAs accept anumAnam  and sabdham. They consume food with the knowledge that hunger will be relieved , when one is hungry. They do not know however that hunger will be removed by eating , before eating through the power of
prathyaksham . Further ,  as Vaadhis , they point why they agree with the PrathivAdhis on the reasons and state that the unseen vasthu exits. By this act, they have agreed to the validity of anumAnam and Sabdham.

The CharvAkAs , who only  accept the body that is seeable by prathyaksham and reject the unseeable aathmA
as nonexistent can come up with the only answer for the new born baby drinking mother's milk because of poorva janma vaasanai (memories of previous births). By this they have to agree that there is an eternal aathmA other than the SarIram . Further , the CharvAkAs who equate the body with the aathmA see the aathmA , which has no hand or leg or eye in the same way as the limbs of the SarIram ( hand, leg, eye of that SarIram ) that they can see by direct perception (Prathyaksham).

Thus the CharvAkAs know that their doctrines are inconsistent with their actions and lose their minds and yet wont give up their faulty doctrines.